If you want a fine-tuned audio system instead of your regular speaker, you must buy a subwoofer. It is a standard part of the modern high-profile audio studio monitoring system. It converts the low-frequency audio signal into deep juicy bass.
All credit goes to the complexity and high-quality design of the subwoofer. Because of the complex, high-quality design, the subwoofer can handle low-pitched sound.
Now, you must be getting inquisitive. How does a subwoofer work? In this article, we’ll simplify how a speaker works in detail.
Besides, we’ve added some fundamental queries about the subwoofer so that you can easily understand its activities.
Ready? Let’s start then!
What Is a Subwoofer?
The subwoofer is a fundamental audio system that reproduces low-frequency audio. Although it is particularly designed for low-frequency sound, it also works on the other frequencies.
It uses a built-in woofer and amplifier to re-create deep, clean, and wide bass. Combining a high-end subwoofer with the full-range speaker, you won’t miss a single sound.
If you have a $200 budget to buy a speaker, then you can check the list of our recommended Best Component Speaker Under 200.
How Does a Subwoofer Work?
Getting the bass sound is the primary motive of buying a subwoofer. But, the process of subwoofer bass production is difficult. The mechanism of a subwoofer has to go through multiple critical activities.
So, how does a subwoofer work? Here’s the kick!
We have divided the subwoofer activities into two parts: activities for the suspension system and activities for the motor system. Let’s see how different parts of the subwoofer system works.
Activities of the Suspension System
The basket is an outer casing that combines all the mechanisms of a subwoofer. Thus, it provides structural support to all the internal components of the subwoofer.
With solid structural support, the subwoofer's inner parts can take a breath during its heat production. How? When the subwoofer reproduces the low-frequency sound, the basket allows precise movements of the components.
The surround is a rubber or foam-made component that connects the subwoofer cone with the basket. It is specially designed to prevent long-lasting, heavy excursions.
During the punchy bass production, the cone of the subwoofer moves from one place to another. The rubber-made surround withstands the cone’s high excursions.
The surround connects the cone of the subwoofer in a linear position. It's one of the major components of a subwoofer made from a mixture of paper and polypropylene.
The composition of these two ingredients makes the cone lightweight and rigid. Wherein polypropylene resists the water to protect the speaker.
However, the cone vibrates the sound on-air, maintaining the high-rigidity level and low mess. As a consequence, we can hear the low-frequency sound at the high vocals and bass.
The dust cap is a small curved piece that is placed at the center of the subwoofer cone. It prevents the dust from the subwoofer's inner mechanics, like a cone, voice coil, etcetera.
You can protrude and bulge the dust cap slightly to enhance the protecting capacity. But the ability of protrusion and bulging depends on the quality of your subwoofer.
The spider is another major component of the subwoofer. Because of its layered series with a corrugated design, the substance is called the spider. However, in a subwoofer, a spider has a few roles to perform.
The primary role of the spider is to sustain the movement of the voice coil. Besides this, it also monitors the movement of the cone. Like the capacitor, the spider also stores the subwoofer's energy to use when it needs it.
Moreover, the mechanism also makes the voice coil dust-free during its free movement.
The tinsel leads are the electrical wires which connect the voice coil with the speaker lead ports. They transfer the electricity through this route to create energy into the subwoofer.
However, tinsel leads are durable and flexible wire, as expected. As a consequence, the extreme vibration of the soundbox cannot damage it in any way.
Activities of the Motor System
The motor system provides strong support to the subwoofer. It enforces the power to move the internal components of the suspension system. So, the motor system is called the heart of a subwoofer.
The voice coil is situated at the heart of the subwoofer and connected with the spider and cone. Basically, the voice coil produces the sound extracting the audio signal from the amplifier.
The former and coils are two main parts of the voice coil. The first part holds the voice coil in its place; whereas, the second part alternates the current to produce the sound.
Magnet is the last but the life force component of the subwoofer. It comes in different sorts based on the subwoofer size and quality. You can enjoy the bass from the subwoofer when its magnet can retain the magnetism for long.
It’s believed that the larger magnet makes a high-quality speaker and lasts long. To some extent, it is correct; but honestly speaking, a magnet alone cannot improve a subwoofer's quality.
The versatile technology with the magnet also helps to improve the subwoofer sound quality. That’s why the magnet is covered with the plate and bottom plate of the voice coil.
After supplying the current, both of these plates deliver the magnetic flux to the voice coil. It consequently helps the voice coil to extract audio signals from the amplifier and produces sound.
The Top Plate
The top plate mechanism is found under the basket above the magnets. It works to deliver the magnetic flux to its destination, the voice coil. With the t-yoke, the top plate directs and maintains a magnetic field.
The Bottom Plate/ Black Plate
The bottom plate, which creates reverse force, is found beside the top plate at the magnetic field. It also works as the top plate and causes an effect on the subwoofer handling power.
The bottom or black plate extracts and scatters the heat from the voice coil. The ventilation of air also directs the magnetic flux to the voice coil like the top plate.
The subwoofer is a standard part of the audio system which causes dramatic explosions and crashes. But how does a subwoofer work to make the dramatic bass?
Of course, you would love to know that if you've been astonished by your subwoofer so much. The acknowledgment of the subwoofer working system will also help to find out the quality bass-created subwoofer.